IQ Versus EQ

An Intelligence Quotient or IQ is a score derived from a set of standardized tests developed to measure a person’s cognitive abilities (“intelligence”) in relation to their age group.

An IQ test does not measure intelligence the way a ruler measures height (absolutely), but rather the way a race measures speed (relatively).

The abbreviation “IQ” was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenzquotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests at University of Breslau he advocated in a 1912 book.

IQ scores are used for educational placement, assessment of intellectual disability, and evaluating job applicants. Even when students improve their scores on standardized tests, they do not always improve their cognitive abilities, such as memory, attention and speed. Scores from intelligence tests are estimates of intelligence. Unlike, for example, distance and mass, a concrete measure of intelligence cannot be achieved given the abstract nature of the concept of “intelligence”.

Emotional Intelligence (EI), or emotional quotient (EQ), is defined as an individual’s ability to identify, evaluate, control, and express emotions. People with high EQ usually make great leaders and team players because of their ability to understand, empathize, and connect with the people around them.

Although the term first appeared in a 1964 paper by Michael Beldoch, it gained popularity in the 1995 book by that title, written by author and science journalist Daniel Goleman.[3] Since this time, emotional intelligence and Goleman’s 1995 analysis, have been criticized within the scientific community, despite prolific reports of its usefulness in the popular press.

Criticisms have centered on whether EI is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality traits.

Can Emotional Intelligence be measured?

Measurement and testing is possible although measuring EQ is very subjective. However, there are several standardized tests that measure emotional intelligence. Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test puts testers through a series of emotion-based problem-solving questions. The score reflects a person’s capacity for reasoning with emotional information. Goleman’s model of measurement focuses on emotional competencies. Goleman’s model utilizes one of two tests: the Emotional Competency Inventory or the Emotional Intelligence Appraisal. Both tests have their own set of proponents and critics.

How is IQ being measured?

Unlike EQ, theorists have attempted to make IQ testing more objective. The Stanford-Binet test was the first true IQ assessment because it factored in age. The score is based on the test-taker’s mental age, as evaluated by the test, divided by the chronological age multiplied by 100.

American psychologist David Wechsler developed three IQ tests; one for preschool and primary children, one for older children and one for adults. The score is based on factor analysis. Sub-tests of the assessment are evaluated against age-based norms. Another commonly-used test is the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Abilities. With the Woodcock-Johnson, extensive tests assess a wide variety of cognitive abilities. All three tests are still in use, and no one test is commonly considered the best or most accurate.

What are the two categories of IQ?

Intelligence is generally divided into two categories: fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.

  • Fluid intelligence is the ability to reason in an abstract way and solve problems. For example, fluid intelligence is being put into use when someone thinks out of the box and finds different ways to reinvent things.
  • Crystallized intelligence is the ability to read and comprehend, and to acquire intellectual skills.

However, fluid intelligence tends to diminish as we grow older while crystallized intelligence was found to improve as we age.

What are the five categories of Emotional Intelligence?

Self – awareness. The ability to recognize an emotion as it happens. Developing self-awareness requires tuning in to your true feelings.

Self – regulation. The ability to govern or polices yourself without outside or external assistance or influence. In EQ, it is a person’s ability to manage the durations, intensity, and frequency of his or her emotions. It may also refer to the application of numerous techniques on how to alleviate negative strong emotions like anger, anxiety, or depression.

Motivation. The general desire or willingness that drives someone to do something. Primarily, it is the reason why someone is acting or behaving in a particular manner. With emotional intelligence, a person may be predisposed to have either a positive or negative attitude. However, with effort and practice, one can learn how to manage negativities in a healthier way. It also helps an individual in capitalizing his or her strengths.

Empathy. The ability to understand and share feelings of another. Learning to recognize how people feel can help someone become successful in life. Knowing how to discern feelings behind signals sent by other people enables you to control the signals or reactions you will be sending them in return.

Social skills. These are the skills we use to communicate and interact with each other, both verbally and non-verbally. People skills are greatly in need today as we face technological revolution. This help a person in establishing a connection to the people surrounding him or her. Moreover, this aids in expressing yourself assertively and effectively, especially when managing conflicts and crises.

Can IQ and EQ be enhanced?

Intelligence cannot be increased by medications, but potentially it can be improved.

Researchers discussed two approaches to improving intelligence: one that involved cognitive training and another that focused on pharmacological interventions. In a review of the attempts to improve intelligence, researchers found that 40 to 60 percent of those attempts were not successful.

What this meant, however, was that there were still 40 to 60 percent of approaches that actually worked. Most recently, computerized cognitive training designed to improve attention, working memory, and executive control has shown enormous promise in improving performance, especially in fluid intelligence.

The question from a pharmacological perspective is what biological systems need to be targeted to improve intelligence at different ages. Some stimulant medications enhance basic reaction time and processing time, but not memory or higher order tasks. On the other hand, the herbs ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and an Indian herb known as brahmi have demonstrated some capacity to improve working memory.

Your level of EQ is firm, but not rigid. Our ability to identify and manage our own and others’ emotions is fairly stable over time, influenced by our early childhood experiences and even genetics. That does not mean we cannot change it, but, realistically, long-term improvements will require a great deal of dedication and guidance.

No program or coaching session can make someone from zero to hero. On the other hand, a well-designed coaching intervention can significantly improve one’s EQ. There is also a research which claims that the benefits of EQ-coaching are not just confined to the workplace — they produce higher levels of happiness, mental and physical health, improved social and marital relationships, and decrease levels of cortisol (the stress hormone).

Which is better: IQ or EQ?

There are differing perspectives on whether EQ or IQ is more important. Those in the EQ camp say “A high IQ will get you through school, a high EQ will get you through life.” There are also those who believe cognitive ability (IQ) is a better predictor of success and EQ is overrated, sometimes even in emotionally demanding jobs.

At one point in time, IQ was viewed as the primary determinant of success. People with high IQs were assumed to be destined for a life of accomplishment and achievement and researchers debated whether intelligence was the product of genes or the environment (the old nature versus nurture debate).

Employers are increasingly looking for more people with emotional intelligence. Some researches have shown that success at work or in life depends on Emotional Intelligence 80% and only 20% of intellect. While our intellect help us to resolve problems, to make the calculations or to process information, EQ allows us to be more creative and use our emotions to resolve our conflicts.

On the other hand, IQ is still recognized as an important element of success, particularly when it comes to academic achievement. People with high IQs typically do well in school, often earn more money, and tend to be healthier in general. But today, experts recognize it is not the only determinate of life success. Instead, it is part of a complex array of influences that includes emotional intelligence among other things.

The concept of emotional intelligence has had a strong impact in a number of areas, including the business world. Many companies now mandate emotional intelligence training and utilize EQ tests as part of the hiring process.

How well you do in your life and career is determined by both. IQ alone is not enough; EQ also matters. In fact, psychologists generally agree that among the ingredients for success, IQ counts for roughly 10% (at best 25%); the rest depends on everything else — including EQ.

Life success is a result of many factors. Both IQ and EQ undoubtedly play roles in influencing your overall success, as well as things such as health, wellness, and happiness. Rather than focusing on which factors might have a more dominant influence, the greatest benefit may lie in learning to improve skills in multiple areas.

In addition to strengthening certain cognitive abilities, such as your memory and mental focus, you can also acquire new social and emotional skills that will serve you well in many different areas of your life.

References

Akers, M., & Porter, G. (2018). What is Emotional Intelligence (EQ)?. Retrieved from https://psychcentral.com/lib/what-is-emotional-intelligence-eq/

Bidwell, Allie (2013-12-13). “Study: High Standardized Test Scores Don’t Translate to Better Cognition”. U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on 2013-12-14. Retrieved 2017-07-01.

Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2013). Can You Really Improve Your Emotional Intelligence?. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2013/05/can-you-really-improve-your-em

Duckworth, A., Hunt, E., Jaeggi, S., Johnson, W., & Stough, C. (2012). Improving Intelligence. Retrieved from https://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/improving-intelligence

Haier, Richard (2016-12-28). The Neuroscience of Intelligence. Cambridge University Press. pp. 18–19. ISBN 9781107461437.